Saturniidae of Peninsular Malaysia
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compiled by Wolfgang A. Nässig

A treatise on the Saturniidae of Peninsular Malaysia was published by R.E.J. Lampe in 1984 in German language and reprinted in English translation in 1985:
German Edition:
Rudolf E. J. Lampe (1984): Die Saturniiden der Cameron- und Genting-Highlands in West-Malaysia (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

Neue Entomologische Nachrichten 11: 16 text pages, 8 colour plates. 
Keltern (Erich BAUER, Antiquariat Goecke & Evers). ISBN 3-88988-203-X

Lampe (1984)
English Edition:
Rudolf E. J. Lampe (1985): Malayan Saturniidae from the Cameron & Genting Highlands. A guide for collectors.
[Internal title: The Saturniidae of the Cameron and Genting Highlands of Western Malaysia.]
After a translation by Klaus Groh.

Faringdon, Oxon, U.K. (E.W. Classey Ltd.), 16 text pages, 8 colour plates, 1 map.
ISBN 0-86096-021-8
Also available from Erich BAUER, Antiquariat Goecke & Evers.

Lampe (1985)

The following species of Saturniidae
are known from Peninsular (or West) Malaysia:
Systematic arrangement according to the order used in the more recent Sumatran, which shares a lot of species with Peninsular Malaysia, and Philippine Saturniidae faunas. Additions or changes in comparison to Lampe’s lists of 1984/85 are listed and explained in footnotes following the list. The systematics and nomenclature applied here are therefore not identical with the original treatment by Lampe in 1984/85! — See also the disclaimer below. — References see at the end.

Lampe (1984/85) listed 22 species of Saturniidae for Peninsular Malaysia; here we show 26 species based on the present knowledge.

Superfamily Bombycoidea Latreille, 1802
Family Saturniidae Boisduval, [1837] 1834
Subfamily Saturniinae Boisduval, [1837] 1834

Tribe Attacini Blanchard, 1840
Genus Attacus Linnaeus, 1767

Attacus atlas (Linnaeus, 1758)
Genus Archaeoattacus Watson, 1914 (see footnote 1)
Archaeoattacus edwardsii (White, 1859)
Archaeoattacus staudingeri (Rothschild, 1895)
Genus Samia Hübner, [1819] 1816
Samia spec. 1 (see footnote 2)
Samia spec. 2 (see footnote 2)
Tribe Saturniini Boisduval, [1837] 1834
Genus Actias Leach, 1815
Actias maenas (Doubleday, 1847)
Actias selene (Hübner, 1806)  (see footnote 3)
Genus Saturnia Schrank, 1802
Subgenus Rinaca Walker, 1855
Saturnia (Rinaca) thibeta Westwood, 1853 (see footnote 4)
Subgenus Saturnia Schrank, 1802
Saturnia (Saturnia) cameronensis Lemaire, 1979 (see footnote 5)
Genus Loepa Moore, 1859
Loepa megacore Jordan, 1911 (see footnote 6)
Loepa sikkima javanica Mell, 1938 (see footnote 7)
Genus Cricula Walker, 1855
Cricula elaezia Jordan, 1909 (see footnote 8)
Cricula cameronensis U. & L.H. Paukstadt, 1998  (see footnote 9)
Cricula trifenestrata (Helfer, 1837)  (see footnote 10)
Genus Antheraea Hübner, [1819] 1816
Subgenus Antheraeopsis Wood-Mason, 1886
Antheraea (Antheraeopsis) youngi Watson, 1915 (see footnote 11)
Subgenus Antheraea Hübner, [1819] 1816
Antheraea (Antheraea) larissa (Westwood, 1847)
Antheraea (Antheraea) platessa Rothschild, 1903 (see footnote 12)
Antheraea (Antheraea) gschwandneri Niepelt, 1918 (species-complex?) (see footnote 13)
Antheraea (Antheraea) steinkeorum U. Paukstadt et al., 1999
                                                                                        (= ulrichbroschi U. & L.H. Paukstadt, 1999, syn.) (see footnote 14)
Antheraea (Antheraea) broschi Naumann, 2001 (see footnote 14)
Antheraea (Antheraea) rosieri (Toxopeus, 1940) (see footnote 15)
Antheraea (Antheraea) helferi borneensis Moore, 1892 (see footnote 16)
Antheraea (Antheraea) diehli Lemaire, 1979
Antheraea (Antheraea) (pernyi) roylii korintjiana Bouvier, 1928  (see footnote 17)
Antheraea (Antheraea) lampei Nässig & Holloway, 1989 (see footnote 17)
Genus Lemaireia Nässig & Holloway, 1987 (see footnote 18)
Lemaireia loepoides (Butler, 1880)


Important Note/Disclaimer: The taxonomic changes proposed here within this web page are not proposed as valid taxonomic acts in accordance with the Code; they are only suggestions to promote the ongoing discussion among the specialists. Real changes must await a publication in print.

References see below!

  1. West Malaysia is the only place where the two described species of the genus Archaeoattacus are known to live sympatric. Arch. edwardsii is known from the Himalaya across the whole Indochinese Peninsula down to West Malaysia, while Arch. staudingeri is endemic to Sundaland. The West Malaysian population of Arch. edwardsii was described as a separate subspecies malayanus Kurosawa & Kishida, [1985], but this taxon was synonymized by Brosch et al. (1999). —  TEXT???Back.
  2. The two Peninsular Malaysia species of Samia were called by Lampe (1984, 1985) “cynthia Drury, 1773” and “borneensis Rebel, 1926”, respectively. This is, just as within Archaeoattacus, a case of one Sundanian and one continental SE Asian species of the same genus overlapping in West Malaysia. The species called borneensis by Lampe belongs to the Sundanian insularis-complex. The valid names for the two Peninsular species as well as the interpretation which taxon within the insularis-complex is to be treated as species or subspecies remains to be assessed; a revision of the whole genus is in preparation by R.S. Peigler and S. Naumann. In a preparatory work for that publication, Naumann & Peigler (2001) described the new species Samia kohlli from West Malaysia and distributed much farther North.  — Back.
  3. The subspecific status of West Malaysian (and other Sundanian) Actias selene populations requires further research; within the Sumatra fauna the Sundaland population was called A. selene seitzi Kalis, 1934. As was recently shown by U. & L.H. Paukstadt (1999a), the populations of the selene-group from Java and the other parts of Sundaland (Neomalaya, Paramalaya) appear to be not identical. The valid subspecific name for the Peninsular Malaysian population of A. selene may be vandenberghi; but further research remains necessary. — Back.
  4. This taxon was listed by Lampe under the name “Caligula extensa Butler, 1881”. As was published by Nässig (1994), there is no chance to hold a separate genus Caligula Moore, 1862; the species often included into that genus are all to be treated as members of the genus Saturnia Schrank, 1802, subgenus Rinaca Walker, 1855. The taxon extensa was described from NE India, the nominotypical thibeta from NW India, and the Malaysian specimens are indeed somewhat larger, but presently we do not think it necessary to split this up. — Back.
  5. This species was described (and listed so by Lampe) in the subgenus Eriogyna Jordan, 1913. However, Nässig (1994) synonymized Eriogyna with Saturnia (Saturnia). — Back.
  6. There may be an overlap of or possibly even introgression between the northern Sundanian (= Neomalayan) L. megacore and the Indochinese to Himalayan L. diversiocellata Bryk, 1944 in the northernmost states of West Malaysia and adjacent South Thailand (at the area of the Istmus of Krah and of the climate divide between perhumid and seasonal tropical climate). — Back.
  7. This taxon was called L. sikkima Moore, 1865 by Lampe. However, there are some differences between the nominotypical northern populations in the Himalaya area and the Sundanian ones. — Back.
  8. The specimen illustrated on plate 8, fig. 1 by Lampe (1984, 1985) is not C. trifenestrata, as stated by Lampe, but Cricula elaezia. This was shown by a dissection later (W.A. Nässig). C. elaezia is a Sundaland species. — Back.
  9. The taxon Cricula cameronensis was described as a subspecies of C. trifenestrata by U. & L.H. Paukstadt (1998). However, as the real C. trifenestrata with the typical black trifenestrata larvae (which are more easily distinguishable from cameronensis than the imagines) is also known from Peninsular Malaysia (larvae were found on several occasions in the Kuala Lumpur/Genting Highlands area, Nässig, Maschwitz et al. unpubl.), and, moreover, as there have been specimens with typical trifenestrata genitalia been collected also in the Cameron Highlands (Brinchang), we believe that cameronensis is not just a “mountain race” of trifenestrata but clearly a separate species. This is also supported by slight, but evidently constant differences in the male genitalia (being slightly larger and stronger sclerotized in cameronensis). Further studies would be necessary to assess this situation beyond doubt. — Back.
  10. See above. The status of Cricula trifenestrata is still somewhat unclear; a subspecific analysis of the trifenestrata group is still lacking. — Back.
  11. Lampe called this species A. assamensis youngi Watson, 1915. However, the true A. (Ao.) assamensis is restricted to the Himalayan area (and maybe mountains in northern Indochina/South China?) (studies are in preparation, see under the website In the Sumatra treatment of 1996, this taxon youngi Watson, 1915 (applied to the Sumatran population) was interpreted as a subspecies of castanea Jordan, 1910. It was then raised to full species status by Nässig & Treadaway (July 1998, “The Saturniidae (Lepidoptera) of the Philippines”). See also for comparison U. Paukstadt et al. (1998 [August]), who published some additional information on the Sumatran fauna of Antheraea. — Back.
  12. In 1984/85, when Lampe’s Peninsular Malaysian publication was published, the status and identity of “jana” sensu auctorum was not yet resolved. This was only done by Nässig (1992). Lampe’s species “A. jana fusca Rothschild, 1903” in fact is A. platessa. The true A. jana is a much smaller species evidently endemic to Java and Bali etc. — L.H. & U. Paukstadt (1999) described the larva of the Bornean A. platessa. It is quite similar to all other species of the frithi-subgroup, but shows distinctive dichromatic dorsal scoli on meso- and metathorax in last instar. — Back.
  13. Lampe called this West Malaysian population A. celebensis Watson, 1915. This name celebensis, however, should be restricted to the Sulawesian population. Calling this Malaysian species gschwandneri here in the present web page follows the concept applied in the Sumatran web page. However, there are other concepts, see the footnote in the Sumatran web page. The situation within the species of the frithi-subgroup (how many real biological species are included in this group, and how can we differentiate them?) is still far from being solved, see also the following footnotes. — Back.
  14. Recently this new species of Antheraea (Antheraea) was described by U. & L.H. Paukstadt (1999b). There remains quite some doubt about this taxon, and at present it is as insufficiently characterized as most other taxa of this complex. It would be helpful if a detailed study based on reliable modern methods (e.g., pheromone analyses, alloenzyme electrophoresis, DNA fingerprint or similar) would show that such externally only vaguely defined taxa are really true species, being genetically separated from each other. In a later step, after having proven that they really are distinct species, it would then be helpful to look for reliably distinguishing external characters between them; also their preimaginal characters should be studied. There is presently a horrible lot of just vaguely defined taxa (usually based on weak external characters only) in Antheraea, but no one really can tell them reliably apart. In addition, the Malaysian Peninsula is not very strongly separated in zoogeographical terms from Borneo and Sumatra (the narrow sea between these lands dates back only for approximately 10,000 years, and this region forms the Sundanian subregion Neomalaya) on one side, and the Indochinese Peninsula on the other side. Endemic taxa known from West Malaysia only (and not as well found either in other parts of Neomalaya or on the Indochinese Peninsula!) are generally rare. — In a recent publication, Naumann (2001) described a new species Antheraea (Antheraea) broschi from Borneo, distributed in Sundaland, and synonymized A. (A.) ulrichbroschi with A. (A.) steinkeorum U. Paukstadt et al., 1999.  — Back.
  15. This species was listed as Loepantheraea rosieri by Lampe. Holloway (1987: 105) in his Borneo work synonymized this genus with Antheraea. See also the footnote about this species in the Sumatra treatment. — Back.
  16. The original helferi Moore, 1859 was described from India. The status of the different Sundanian populations requires further research; Lampe used the subspecific name borneensis. — Back.
  17. When the booklets by Lampe were published in 1984/85, the identity of these two taxa was not yet assessed; however, Lampe was the first to distinguish the two species. In a later paper (Nässig & Holloway 1989) we separated these two taxa. Lampe called “A. roylei korintjiana” what we presently identify as A. lampei (named in honour of Lampe’s discovery), and “A. pernyi Guerin-Méneville, 1855” what we presently know as A. (pernyi) roylii korintjana. — See also the remarks in the footnote of the Sumatran publication. — Back.
  18. This genus was inadvertedly described within the publication by Holloway (1987) in advance of the so-intended publication, because the print of the publication in Heterocera Sumatrana (Nässig & Holloway 1988) became delayed into early 1988. So the correct authorship for the genus is Nässig & Holloway (in Holloway 1987). — Back.

  • Brosch, U., Naumann, S., Paukstadt, L.H., Paukstadt, U., Tcherniak, I., & Beeke, M. (1999 [28. December]): Anmerkungen zur Brahmaeiden- und Saturniidenfauna von Laos und Kambodscha (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea). — Galathea, Ber. Krs. Nürnberger Entomol., Suppl. 6: 33–58.
  • Nässig, W. A. (1992): Antheraea (Antheraea) platessa Rothschild 1903: The correct name for Antheraea jana auctorum, nec Stoll 1782 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). — Nachr. entomol. Ver. Apollo, Frankfurt/Main, N.F. 13 (2a): 157–163.
  • Nässig, W. A. (1994): Vorschlag für ein neues Konzept der Gattung Saturnia Schrank 1802 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). — Nachr. entomol. Ver. Apollo, Frankfurt am Main, N.F. 15 (3): 253–266.
  • Nässig, W.A., & Holloway, J.D. (1988) On the systematic position of “Syntherata” loepoides Butler and its allies (Lep., Saturniidae). — Heterocera Sumatrana 2 (6): 115–127)
  • Nässig, W.A., & Holloway, J.D. (1989) A new species of Antheraea from Sumatra, West Malaysia and Borneo (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae). — Heterocera Sumatrana 2 (7): 185–190.
  • Naumann, S. (2001): Notes on some Antheraea of Sundaland, with description of a new species (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). — Nachr. entomol. Ver. Apollo, Frankfurt am Main, N.F. 22 (2): 67–74.
  • Naumann, S., & Peigler, R. S. (2001): Four new species of the silkmoth genus Samia (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). — Nachr. entomol. Ver. Apollo, Frankfurt am Main, N.F. 22 (2): 75–83.
  • Paukstadt, L.H., & Paukstadt, U. (1999): Die Beschreibung der Präimaginalstadien von Antheraea (Antheraea) platessa W. Rothschild, 1903 von Nord Borneo [sic], sowie Angaben zur Biologie und Ökologie (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). — Galathea, Ber. Krs. Nürnberger Entomol., Suppl. 6: 13–22.
  • Paukstadt, U., & Paukstadt, L.H. (1998): Cricula trifenestrata cameronensis n. subsp., eine neue Unterart der Gattung Cricula Walker 1855 aus West Malaysia [sic] (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). — Entomologische Zeitschrift 108 (4): 129–141.
  • Paukstadt, U., & Paukstadt, L.H. (1999a): Anmerkungen zum taxonomischen Status von Actias selene seitzi Kalis 1934 und Actias selene vandenberghi Roepke 1956 (stat. rev.), sowie zur geographischen Verbreitung dieser Taxa in Südostasien (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). — Entomologische Zeitschrift 109 (12): 484–491.
  • Paukstadt, U., & Paukstadt, L.H. (1999b) [28. December]: Antheraea (Antheraea) ulrichbroschi n. sp., eine neue Saturniide von West Malaysia [sic] (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). — Galathea, Ber. Krs. Nürnberger Entomol., Suppl. 6: 90–98.
  • Paukstadt, U., Paukstadt, L.H., & Brosch, U. (1998):Taxonomische Änderungen und Anmerkungen zu den Taxa der Gattung Antheraea Hübner [1819] von Sumatera [sic], Indonesien (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). — Entomologische Zeitschrift 108 (8): 317–327.

© 1999–2002 by W. A. Nässig — compiled & published 30. December 1999, last changes 26. January 2000, 18. January 2002
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